Reviewed in the United States on January 1, 2014
Several others have read Martinez's book and
seen problems with how she organizes and presents her evidence. I saw these same
problems, especially how she sets her theories up antagonistically against
mainstream concepts of evolution and religion. I can understand why reviewers
have been less than accepting of her theories, which are in part based on
fringe bible called the Oahspe, written only slightly more than 130 years ago.
These criticisms should not detract from the substantial amount of "new" information on language and genetics, which implicate hybridization of closely related Homo species and subspecies. The addition of spiritual and religious data will undoubtedly preclude acceptance by most mainstream anthropologists and archaeologists. Add to that her poor citation of information sources (those which she does cite are selective and not inclusive), and her missing of key references to books on Little People, mythology, and the Ice Age, makes me question how well-researched and thought out her theories are.
For example, she cites Fingerprints of the Gods by Graham Hancock (1995), but makes no reference to his more scientifically presented evidence for a Pacific continent in Underworld, published in 2002. She missed what Hancock shows the Pacific islands would have looked like at a lower sea level during the last Ice Age, which supports in part her concept of Pan. She needed to consult a geologist, who might have kept her from hypothesizing an enormous continent (i.e., Pan) in the middle of the Pacific ocean, and instead opted for more extensive emergence of islands in the South Pacific and Indonesia, which Hancock (2002) shows were interconnected by land at low sea level as recently as 17,000 years ago.
Had she read Underworld, she would have learned that rebound of the ocean bottom with loss of so much water weight would have created a vast coastal plain with extensive tidal flats interconnecting the hundreds of islands, which become mountains on a land mass that may have approached her vision of Pan. I particularly noted her reference to Pan as having much clay or mud, which is exactly what an emergent Pacific sea bottom would have had far from continental rivers and deltas, if rebound and isostatic uplift exposed vast expanses of sea bottom between some of the island arc systems (Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, Marine Core Repository).
She would have also read in Underworld that there were at least three (3) Great Floods at the end of the last Ice Age, not one as she thinks. More importantly, she would have realized that the oldest of these three floods at around 14,200 y.b.p. is about 10,000 years younger than her placement of the Great Flood at about 24,000 y.b.p. Add to that the fact that at a sea level of 370 or more feet lower than current sea level during the Ice Age (Physical Geology, by Tarbuck and Lutgens, 2002) would have precluded the type of floods (megatsunamis) that occurred at the end of the Ice Age when melting of the continental ice sheets rapidly raised sea level above the continental shelves.
Had she read Underworld and known about my work and background in geology, she would have learned that cyclic rise and lowering of sea level on a 5,140 cycle (average) occurred during the last Ice Age. The amount of sea level rise was much less than at the end of the Ice Age, probably on the order of only 20-30 feet approximately every 5,100 years (Mayan Long Year).
If isostatic rebound raised sea bottom with the lowering of sea level during the Ice
Age, and vast flood plains and tidal flats interconnected the South Pacific islands to form a smaller Pan, these coastal plains would have been ideal for agriculture! Such larger areas for growing crops on Pan would explain why corn, for example, may have been a primary staple for the Little People, as Martinez theorized.
During periodic and cyclic flooding with sea level rise every 5,140 years on average, those agricultural regions of Pan, being so close to sea level, would have been flooded by the sea, causing the displacement of thousands and even hundreds of thousands of Little People dependent on those aerable farm lands. These periodic waves of human migration due to mini-meltdowns of ice and the shrinking of Pan, would have forced those inhabitants to take to boats or to seek mountain refuges. Many would have ended up on the continents surrounding Pan as their Pacific paradise periodically shrank. Her age of around 24,000 y.b.p. for the flood migration would have been but one of many such migrations with each inundation of Pan during the Ice Age. Survivors would remember only the flood that involved them, and myths of older floods would become confused with the last flood: hence over time only one Great Flood.
Greenland ice core data for the last 150,000 years, based on Deuterium temperature changes (Petit et al., 1999), show 21 cyclic fluctuations from colder to warmer, then quickly back to colder during the 108,000 year long Wisconsinian Ice Age. The temperature change from the coldest to the warmest was about 2.5 degrees C, enough to cause temporary melting and refreezing of glacial ice. Divide 21 into 108,000 and one gets 5,140 years per hemicycle (called that because the cycle is asymmetrical).
At this point in my book review, I need to introduce an abstract of my Multiple Ice Age Theory in order to explain the celestial mechanisms that cause these hemicycles, because they are responsible for the world-wide megatsunamis that occurred only at the end of the Wisconsinian Ice Age. Because the Holocene Interglacial, based on those Greenland ice core data, was on the average 2.5 degrees C colder than the previous Sangamonian (Eemian) Interglacial (138;000-116,400 y.b.p.), the ice sheets melted more slowly at the end of the Wisconsinian and into the early Holocene, causing the Ice Age temperature fluctuations (and their cause) to continue past the end of the last Ice Age, and causing, for example, the Younger Dryas. The Ice Age meltdown took longer, spanning approximately seven thousand years from about 14,600 to 7,600 y.b.p., whereas it took only about 5,000 years at the end of the previous Illinoian Ice Age (see Petit et al., 1999, ice core temperature curve).
Hancock (2002) shows Blaunchon and Shaw's (1995) data on tropical reef inundations with each sea level rise at the end of the last Ice Age, and there are Three (3) recorded. The age dates from C-14 are tentative and only approximate the ice core dates for high temperature spikes. These spikes (responsible in part for the floods) demarcate the Ice Age hemicycles, which became shorter at the end of the last Ice Age during the meltdown: 14,200; 11,500; 7,600 y.b.p. Those three Great Floods are recorded in the ancient Egyptian Book of the Dead! See the Descent of Osiris into the Underworld, which shows the relative magnitude of each flood, the presence or absence of Arks, and causes due to changes in the rate of deceleration on the Earth's orbital rotational axis ("Pole of the Ecliptic": Hancock, 1995).
Because Egyptologist have been blinded by mythological labels and stories, and by a failure to understand where this advanced knowledge of historical climatology and celestial mechanics came from (for further understanding read Fingerprints of the Gods, by Hancock, 1995; Hamlet's Mill, by de Santillana and von Dechend, 1969; and The Death of Gods in Ancient Egypt, by Sellers, 1992), they could not see or recognize that those Egyptians knew more about the causes of glaciation and interglacials than we do today!
Imagine: Osiris represents the Ice God (see GeneSet, by Wood and Campbell, 1995), and his death at the hands of Set "caused" the interglacial. The resurrection of Osiris means the beginning of another Ice Age!
In the Osiris Intestines graph (also from the Egyptian Book of the Dead), the last four glacial hemicycles are shown (back to 30,000 y.b.p.) and given labels (i.e., Sons of Horus). Set is depicted as an erection (black pole) on the dead body of Osiris, based on one of the Osiris myths, where Set is depicted as a reed used by Isis to substitute for Osiris's missing 15th body part (GenIsis, by Wood, 1986). That erection represents the Earth's secondary Precessional axis of rotation, the Orbital Axis. The Earth does not rotate on that axis during most of an interglacial, which is why it has not been previously recognized.
The celestial mechanics that free Earth to rotate on that secondary axis allow the Sun and Moon to turn the Earth one complete rotation on that axis every orbit of the Sun (modified Luni-Solar Theory). Like the Moon, which turns counterclockwise once on its orbital Axis every orbit of the Earth, the Earth will turn like the Moon when free to do so, because it also does not have equal distribution of mass due to ever-changing Continental Drift. The Earth's core is closer to the Earth's surface under oceans than it is under continents, making the Earth's center of gravity eccentric towards the Southern Hemisphere (Water World).
Currently the distribution of the continents and oceanic crust favors the South Pole pointing towards the Sun. The Earth rotates simultaneously on two separate axes during an Ice Age (Solar Axis and Orbital Axis: Fenja and Menja). Only when the Earth's orbit is completely in line with the Sun's ecliptic (Accretionary Disc zone) is the rotation on its Orbital Axis braked or stopped like a spinning skater holding her arms out. That alignment occurs in a rhythm of a one-five beat over a 259,200 year cycle, caused by the Sun's wobble:
21,600 yrs + 108,000 yrs + 21,600 yrs + 108,000 yrs
Yarmouthian I 11 i n o i a n Sangamonian Wisconsinian
Interglacial Ice Age Interglacial Ice Age
In addition, there is a 432,000 year cycle, composed of the same 21,600 year cycles (incest), that follows the other two cycles around like a dog, modifying and modulating them. These are Hamlet's Mill and Seller's numbers (see Hancock, 1995). This pattern of cycles has been recorded in detail over a 28 million year period of time in the Upper Triassic, although the cycles are slightly shorter in length while maintaining the same ratios: 21,000 yrs.,105,000 yrs_, and 420,000 yrs. (Olsen, Kent, Cornet, Witte and Schlische, 1996. High-resolution stratigraphy of the Newark rift basin (Early Mesozoic, Eastern North America). Geol_ Soc. Amer. Bull_ 108 (1), 40-77). Geology is directly affected by these cycles.
Due to Continental Drift, most continental land mass is in the Northern Hemisphere. The opposite was true during the Permian Ice Age. The Earth rotated during the last Ice Age with the South Pole pointing inside the Earth's orbit (toward the Sun due to gravitational preference for the Southern Hemisphere's eccentric center of gravity), and the North Pole always pointing outside the Earth's orbit (away from the Sun). That is how the Northern Hemisphere can be in the deep freeze, while the Southern Hemisphere (and Pan) can be in the steamy tropics. During an Ice Age, there were no seasons - no solstice or equinox. The Earth had a monogradient climate from pole to pole, probably organized into climatic belts. The Sun never set in the Land of Punt (Antarctica), while the Sun never rose at the North Pole (perpetual arctic winter).
The present is not always the key to the past, and Antarctica was mostly ice free during the last Ice Age, as Hancock (1995) pointed out using Hapgood's (1966) ancient maps of the Sea Kings. Ice - penetrating radar images of Antarctica do not show glaciated U-shaped valleys between mountains, but instead V-shaped valleys typical of a tropical geography. So who mapped the world during the Paleolithic and Neolithic if civilization was not more advanced before Sumer? (Read Civilization One, by Knight and Butler, 2004).
Does this new information affect Martinez's theories, especially her reliance on scripture from the Oahspe to form a time line of events? Yes. Is there any archaeological evidence to support my theory that there were no seasons during the last Ice Age, and that the Earth actually rotated on its Orbital Axis? Yes.
The most important archaeological find in recent years was made in Southeast Turkey: a circular temple was discovered, called Gobekli Tepe, and dated to the end of the Paleolithic period (14,000 y.b.p.: Martinez, 2013b). It was not regarded as a Solar Equinox and Solstice observatory, although its construction indicates it was an astronomical observatory (National Geographic, June 2011).
Amazingly, Gobekli Tepe measures the beginning of the Earth's deceleration on its Orbital Axis (see Descent of Osiris into the Underworld) over a period of time estimated at 150 years. The spacing of partitions indicates a change in rotation from about seven years per rotation (down from one revolution per year) to about 16 years per rotation. It is no longer odd that the oldest Solar Equinox-Solistice observatories (e.g., Goseck Circle in Eastern Germany and Gigantija Temple on Malta) were built 5,600- 6,600 years ago only after the Earth "stopped" rotating on its orbital Axis.
The Precession of the Equinoxes has a cycle of 25,776 years, quite different from the geological cycle of 21,600 years, and has been attributed to the rotation of the entire Solar system (see Cruttenden, Precession Paradox, in Forbidden Science, 2008). Rotation is opposite in direction for these two very different Precession cycles. The Zodiac rotates counterclockwise as the Solar system rotates clockwise. The Zodiac rotates clockwise as the Earth rotates counterclockwise on its Orbital Axis during an Ice Age.
Going back to the book review, Martinez does not reference Janet Bord (1997): Fairies: Real Encounters with Little People, which supports many of her ideas. She also does not reference John Bierhorst (1990): The Mythology of Mexico and Central America, which supports her idea that the Little People first entered Central Mexico and then migrated north and south.
Martinez makes many good suggestions regarding the origin of man, but her hybrid theory (which I am leaning towards) does not account for the genes and mutations necessary to create a hybrid mix. She hits the target more than mainstream anthropology and archaeology, in my opinion, but no one can hit a bullseye without considering the evidence that supports a former high-tech space-faring human race. If an alleged E.T. (e.g. The Watchers: Book of Enoch; From the Ashes of Angels, by Collins, 1996; History is Wrong, by Von Daniken, 2009) can mate with Earth humans, and produce viable offspring (e.g. Nephilim), even if sterile or monsters/giants, that means we (i.e., E.T. and humans) have a common ancestry on Earth, in my opinion. Martinez suggests this possibility also, but suggest that the promiscuous Watchers were Little Women.
Martinez comes close to identifying a former advanced civilization before her flood episode; and even suggest there may have been war and near extinction of the Little People in the distant past (i.e., Prior to 50,000 y.b.p.). What about the Eruption of the Mount Toba Supervolcano in Sumatra (i.e., Pan) about 73,000 years ago? Surely such an enormous eruption that deposited ash around the world would have had an effect on human evolution in Africa, not to mention Pan. Martinez references the many Great Darkness myths. My Cydonia Earth-Mars Connection PowerPoint [...] brings the search for our lost history back to Earth, and implicates the Sangamonian (Eemian) Interglacial as an interval of time poorly searched for evidence of an advanced human civilization. Hancock (2002) has the right idea of looking below the sea for artifacts. Now we must also turn our search outward to the Moon and Mars to find our lost history (e.g., Dark Mission, by Hoagland and Bara, 2009; Dark Moon, by Bennett and Percy, 1999) and why that civilization failed. Or did it?
In "Cold, Hard Facts" (Popular Science, June 2013: 31-32) geologists and climatologists have identified a three thousand year period of ice core global warming (127-130,000 y.b.p.) in the middle of the Eemian (Sangamonian) Interglacial, during which global temperatures reached 3-5 degrees C hotter than today. Was this heating period due to a man-caused runaway greenhouse effect, or did the Sun actually get hotter? Are myths, pointed out by Martinez, of the Sun getting hotter and/or closer to Earth, and forcing the Little People underground; a reference to this anomalous period of global warming (right where we are today in the middle of our Interglacial)? Did the Little People cover their cities and homes with earth mounds for protection from such heating, and that habit persisted after that period of global warming ended? These questions are why I think Martinez's book is very relevant to those interested in the truth about our ancestry, and who are not willing to accept some consensus interpretation because it is culturally or politically acceptableČ.
I strongly recommend purchasing and reading the Lost History of the Little People by Susan B. Martinez. Many of her ideas will be controversial, but she is brave enough to bring to light many facts and interpretations not found in or supported by mainstream archaeology and anthropology today. The discovery of Homo floresiensis on the Indonesian island of Flores has electrified anthropology. Her book is very timely in bringing facts and evidence into the picture that may have continued to be ignored had H. floresiensis not been discovered, and of all places on a relic fragment of a once larger interconnected region of mountains during the last Ice Age: Pan!
Bruce Cornet, Ph.D.
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